Europe and America were defeated and stood by but they later claimed victories.
1939 Soviet liberation of Poland; Battle of Lwów; Battle of Wilno; Battle of Grodno; Battle of Szack; Battle of Wytyczno.
1939 Winter War; Battle of Tolvajärvi; Battle of Suomussalmi
1941 Battle of Smolensk; Battle of Kiev;
On 22 June 1941, German, Romanian and Slovak troops invaded the Soviet Union, later also joined by Hungary (following the bombing of the Hungarian city of Kassa), effectively starting Operation Barbarossa. Having destroyed most of the Soviet Air Force on the ground, German forces quickly advanced deep into Soviet territory using blitzkrieg tactics. Armored units raced forward in pincer movements, pocketing and destroying entire Soviet armies.
1941 Battle of Moscow, The original German invasion plan, which the Axis called Operation Barbarossa, called for the capture of Moscow within four months. It took place between October 1941 and January 1942. The Soviet defensive effort frustrated Hitler’s attack on Moscow, capital of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the largest Soviet city. Moscow was one of the primary military and political objectives for Axis forces in their invasion of the Soviet Union.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the south-western Soviet Union. Marked by constant close quarters combat and disregard for military and civilian casualties, it is amongst the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. The heavy losses inflicted on the Wehrmacht make it arguably the most strategically decisive battle of the whole war. It was a turning point in the European theatre of World War II–the German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to reinforce their losses.
On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian forces protecting the German 6th Army’s flanks The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out; instead, attempts were made to supply the army by air and to break the encirclement from the outside. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food. The remaining elements of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted five months, one week, and three days.
Battle of Smolensk 1943. The Soviets attack 850,000 German troops near Smolensk fortified region, drive them back inflicting severe losses.
Battle of Kiev (1943) Kiev retaken by Soviets.
Operation Bagration (1944) Soviet offensive destroys German Army Group Center on the Eastern Front which cleared German forces from the Belorussian SSR and eastern Poland between 22 June and 19 August 1944. The operation resulted in the almost complete destruction of an entire German army group, with the loss of Army Group Centre’s Fourth Army, Third Panzer Army and Ninth Army. It is considered the most calamitous defeat experienced by the German armed forces during the Second World War.
Battle of Debrecen (6–29 October 1944) was conducted by the 2nd Ukrainian Front on the Eastern Front of World War II. Soviets gain ground in Hungary but German and Hungarian forces manage to withdraw relatively intact after both sides suffer similar losses.
1st, 4th, and 2nd Ukrainian Fronts of the Soviet Army crushed the last concentration of German troops (over 1,000,000 men in two army groups) in southeastern Germany and Czechoslovakia. These troops were Army Group Centre and the remnants of Army Group Ostmark.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European Theatre of World War II.
Starting on 12 January 1945, the Red Army breached the German front as a result of the Vistula–Oder Offensive and advanced westward as much as 40 kilometres (25 miles) a day through East Prussia, Lower Silesia, East Pomerania, and Upper Silesia, temporarily halting on a line 60 km (37 mi) east of Berlin along the Oder River. When the offensive resumed, two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. The Battle in Berlin lasted from 20 April until the morning of 2 May.
By 23 April the Red Army had completely surrounded Berlin, and Goebbels made a proclamation urging its citizens to defend the city. That same day, Göring sent a telegram from Berchtesgaden, arguing that since Hitler was isolated in Berlin, he, Göring, should assume leadership of Germany. Göring set a deadline after which he would consider Hitler incapacitated. Hitler responded by having Göring arrested, and in his last will and testament, written on 29 April, he removed Göring from all government positions. On 28 April Hitler discovered that Himmler, who had left Berlin on 20 April, was trying to discuss surrender terms with the Western Allies. He ordered Himmler’s arrest and had Hermann Fegelein (Himmler’s SS representative at Hitler’s HQ in Berlin) shot.
On 30 April 1945, after intense street-to-street combat, when Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery, Hitler and Braun committed suicide; Braun bit into a cyanide capsule and Hitler shot himself.
Inflammation of the para-nasal sinuses, medically known as “Sinusitis” or “Rhino-sinusitis”, can be due to infection or allergy. Sinus infection is caused by either bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
Viral Sinus Infection always last for only short period then disappears.
Bacterial Sinus Infection is treated with antibiotics which carry the dangers of killing both useful and harmful bacteria. While it is effective in fighting bacterial infections, antibiotics are also responsible for allowing fungus to grow and upset body flora balance. If antibiotics are used too often for things they can’t treat — like colds, flu or other viral or fungal infections — not only are they of no benefit, they become less effective against bacteria.
Fungal Sinus Infection is the most ignored, but it is in most cases the tricky culprit. Fungal infections are responsible for a long list of very serious diseases and disorders. Fungi can invade various organs and switch between them. They cause great damages to the immune system. Fungal infections can be wiped out with anti-fungal diet (Take and Avoid certain foods), and anti-fungal medication, such as Triazoles. Taking anti-fungal medication and pro-biotic food is necessary on a regular basis especially after taking any course of antibiotic.
Treating fungal infections must be considered the first and most important line of action before considering any antibiotic medication.
Europe has a very violent long history. This is due to the fact that it has very limited natural resources and land. The population density in Europe is the highest in the World. Add to this, it population is controlled by very selfish elites and groups who have insatiable greed and dangerous ambitions.
The concept of territorial expansionism is endemic in Europe. The Nazis supported territorial expansionism to gain “Lebensraum” (German for “habitat” or literally “living space”) as being a law of nature for all healthy and vigorous peoples of superior races to displace people of inferior races; especially if the people of a superior race were facing overpopulation in their given territories.
For Europeans, most of Africa is only suitable for looting resources, but African environment and its population is, considered by Europeans, unfit and hostile for colonization. This is equally true for all Asia south of Russia.
Australia; Latin America and Canada are not geographically adjacent to Europe. The remaining option for European massive territorial expansionism is only Russia.
Any weak government in Russia will allow the annexation of Ural; Siberia; and Far-Eastern Russia to Europe. Also, any policies of appeasement or defensive policies will certainly crumble against the consistent and aggressive European territorial expansionism.
The only peaceful solution to these threats to Russia is by bringing political and conceptual democratic revolutions in Europe to reverse the EU imperial ambitions.
It is very disappointing to discover that many officials and youth, in any country, do not know much about the modern atrocities, plunder, and genocides that took place in the past few centuries in their countries and around the World. One striking example is the history of colonialism together with in-falsified history of liberation struggles.
Such very important history is an essential part to understand and treat the very basis of all economic, social, and political deformities and misery. Knowledge and awareness are not only important for Africa and the rest of the “Exploited World” (wrongly called “Third” or “Under-developed”) but equally important to those countries which exploited and still plunder until today. Those who do not know modern history and basic problem analysis and solving cannot be trusted for public service senior posts.
It would be very appropriate and essential to establish specialized centers of learning and universities in each country to teach and research a number of related subjects to freedom and governance.
Let us call this project “The Freedom University”. The main purpose of this university is to prepare and qualify leaders; government officials; and politicians, as well as organizing public awareness programs.
The main departments of “The Freedom University” project shall include: History; Geography; Defense; Security & Intelligence; Economics; International Law; Sociology; Politics & Governance; Languages; Diplomacy & International Relations; Communication; and Technology.
“The Freedom University” project should be an integral part of the programs of free international organizations such as the African Union; the BRICS; and similar institutions.
1. They’re high in the sleep-enhancing amino acid tryptophan that converts to serotonin in your body and helps ensure a good night’s sleep;
2. They’re also high in the heart-healing mineral magnesium, which is also Nature’s natural relaxant;
3. They’re high levels of easily-digestible protein helps stabilize blood sugar when eaten as a snack throughout the day. Stable blood sugar means weight loss if you’re trying to lose.
4. High in Omega 3s, pumpkin seed oil has been shown in studies to reduce the incidence of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)—a condition in which the prostate gland becomes enlarged.
5. Pumpkin seeds are also high in the prostate-protecting mineral zinc, making these seeds the ultimate snack for men’s health.
6. They’re a good source of blood-building and energy-boosting iron.
7. In animal studies, when pumpkin seeds were added to the diet, the anti-inflammatory results were comparable to the effectiveness of the drug indomethacin—without the side-effects.
8. Their phytosterol compounds are believed to lower cholesterol levels. Of nuts and seeds, pumpkin seeds have the second highest amount of sterols (next to sunflower seeds and pistachios which tied for first).
9. Pumpkin seeds are an excellent source of fiber which helps keep you regular.
10. They are alkalizing to the body’s pH. Many snack foods are acid-forming in the body. Acidity has been linked to pain, illness, and even cancer.
To preserve the health benefits of the oils found in pumpkin seeds, eat them raw or roast them on a baking sheet on low heat in the oven (about 170 degrees F or 75 degrees Celsius) for 15-20 minutes. Toss with a sprinkling of sea salt and enjoy. If you haven’t tried them warm, you’re in for a real treat! Add raw pumpkin seeds to salads, dips, or ground in pesto.
Pumpkin seeds were discovered by archaeologists in caves in Mexico that date back to 7,000 B.C.
North American tribes were the very first to observe the particular miracle in pumpkin seeds. Pumpkins and their seeds were an important Native American Indian food used for their dietary and medicinal properties.
Pumpkin seeds are called pepitas in Mexico and they are a trademark of Mexican cuisine.
Pumpkin seeds were very popular in ancient Greece.
The nutrition in pumpkin seeds improves with age; they are among the few foods that increase in nutritive value as they decompose. According to tests made at the Massachusetts Experimental Station, squash and pumpkin seeds stored for more than five months show a marked increase in protein content.
Pumpkin seeds are high in calories, about 559 calories per 100 g.
Are filled with lots of minerals including phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, iron and copper.
Are a good source of vitamin K.
Contain phytosterols, compounds that that have been shown to reduce levels of LDL cholesterol.
Contain L-tryptophan, which helps with good sleep and lowering depression. Tryptophan is converted into serotonin and niacin. Serotonin is also very helpful in helping us to have a good night’s sleep.
Are high in zinc, making them a natural protector against osteoporosis. Low intake of zinc is linked to higher rates of osteoporosis. In a study of almost 400 men (age from 45-92) published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition they found a correlation between low dietary intake of zinc, low blood levels of the trace mineral and osteoporosis at the hip and spine.
Are a good source vitamin E; they contain about 35.10 mg of tocopherol per 100 g.
Are the most alkaline-forming seed.
Are an excellent source of vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) and folates).
Contain good quality protein. 100 g seeds provide 30 g.
According to studies, pumpkin seeds prevent calcium oxalate kidney stone formation.
Reduce inflammation for arthritis without the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Are used in many cultures as a natural treatment for tapeworms and other parasites.
Are good for prostate health! The oil in pumpkin seeds alleviates difficult urination that happens with an enlarged prostate.
Pumpkin seeds is best to be eaten raw after drying but it also taken as nut roast or roasted nut loaf
Seed Topping for Rice or Vegetables
Green Raspberry Smoothie/Pudding
Pumpkin seeds have long been valued as a source of the mineral zinc, and the World Health Organization recommends their consumption as a good way of obtaining this nutrient. If you want to maximize the amount of zinc that you will be getting from your pumpkin seeds, we recommend that you consider purchasing them in unshelled form. Although recent studies have shown there to be little zinc in the shell itself (the shell is also called the seed coat or husk), there is a very thin layer directly beneath the shell called the endosperm envelope, and it is often pressed up very tightly against the shell. Zinc is especially concentrated in this endosperm envelope. Because it can be tricky to separate the endosperm envelope from the shell, eating the entire pumpkin seed—shell and all—will ensure that all of the zinc-containing portions of the seed will be consumed. Whole roasted, unshelled pumpkin seeds contain about 10 milligrams of zinc per 3.5 ounces, and shelled roasted pumpkin seeds (which are often referred to pumpkin seed kernels) contain about 7-8 milligrams. So even though the difference is not huge, and even though the seed kernels remain a good source of zinc, you’ll be able to increase your zinc intake if you consume the unshelled version.
While pumpkin seeds are not a highly rich source of vitamin E in the form of alpha-tocopherol (they come in 31st among our WHFoods in terms of their vitamin E richness), recent studies have shown that pumpkin seeds provide us with vitamin E in a wide diversity of forms. From any fixed amount of a vitamin, we are likely to get more health benefits when we are provided with that vitamin in all of its different forms. In the case of pumpkin seeds, vitamin E is found in all of the following forms: alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, delta-tocopherol, alpha-tocomonoenol, and gamma-tocomonoenol. These last two forms have only recently been discovered in pumpkin seeds, and their health benefits—including antioxidant benefits—are a topic of current interest in vitamin E research, since their bioavailability might be greater than some of the other vitamin E forms. The bottom line: pumpkin seeds’ vitamin E content may bring us more health benefits that we would ordinarily expect due to the diverse forms of vitamin E found in this food.
Roasting time for pumpkin seeds better be no more than 15-20 minutes when roasting at home. This recommendation supported by a new study that pinpointed 20 minutes as a threshold time for changes in pumpkin seed fats. In this recent study, pumpkin seeds were roasted in a microwave oven for varying lengths of time, and limited changes in the pumpkin seeds fat were determined to occur under 20 minutes. However, when the seeds were roasted for longer than 20 minutes, a number of unwanted changes in fat structure were determined to occur more frequently.
Nutrients in Pumpkin Seeds
Pumpkin seeds, dried,
Nutritional value per 100 g. (Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
Principle Nutrient Value Percentage of RDA
Energy……………….559 Kcal 28%
Carbohydrates…….10.71 g 8%
Protein……………….30.23 g 54%
Total Fat …………….49.05 g 164%
Cholesterol ………… 0 mg 0%
Dietary Fiber………. 6 g 16%
Folates………………..58 µg 15%
Niacin…………………4.987 mg 31%
Pantothenic acid…..0.750 mg 15%
Pyridoxine ………… 0.143 mg 11%
Riboflavin……………0.153 mg 12%
Thiamin………………0.273 mg 23%
Vitamin A ………….. 16 IU 0.5%
Vitamin C ……………1.9 µg 3%
Vitamin E-γ………….35.10 mg 237%
Sodium………………. 7 mg 0.5%
Potassium ……………809 mg 17%
Calcium ………………46 mg 4.5%
Copper ……………….1.343 mg 149%
Iron …………………..8.82 mg 110%
Magnesium …………592 mg 148%
Manganese………… 4.543 mg 198%
Phosphorus……….. 1233 mg 176%
Selenium…………… 9.4 µg 17%
Zinc …………………..7.81 mg 71%
Carotene-β …………….9 µg –
Crypto-xanthin-β…… 1 µg –
Lutein-zeaxanthin …..74 µg –
The total imports and exports on the eve of the French invasion (in 1830) did not exceed £175,000. By 1850, the figures had reached £5,000,000; in 1868, £12,000,000; in 1880, £17,000,000; and in 1890, £20,000,000. From this point progress was slower and the figures varied considerably year by year. In 1905 the total value of the foreign trade was £24,500,000. About five-sixths of the trade is with or via France, into which country several Algerian goods have been admitted duty-free since 1851, and all since 1867. French goods, except sugar, have been admitted into Algeria without payment of duty since 1835. After the 1892 increase of the French minimum tariff which applied to Algeria for the first time, foreign trade greatly diminished.
GDP per capita grew 40 percent in the Sixties reaching a peak growth of 538% in the Seventies. But this proved unsustainable and growth collapsed to a paltry 9.7% in the turbulent Eighties. Failure of timely reforms by successive governments caused the current GDP per capita to shrink by 28% in the Nineties.
This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Algeria at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Algerian Dinars.
|Year||Gross Domestic Product||US Dollar Exchange||Inflation Index
|Per Capita Income
(as % of USA)
|1980||162,500||3.83 Algerian Dinars||9.30||18.51|
|1985||291,600||4.77 Algerian Dinars||14||15.55|
|1990||554,400||12.19 Algerian Dinars||22||10.65|
|1995||2,004,990||47.66 Algerian Dinars||73||5.39|
|2000||4,123,514||75.31 Algerian Dinars||100||5.17|
|2005||7,493,000||73.44 Algerian Dinars||114||7.43|
In 2007 Algerian imports totaled US$26.08 billion. The principal imports were capital goods, foodstuffs, and consumer goods. The top import partners were France (22 percent), Italy (8.6 percent), China (8.5 percent), Germany (5.9 percent), Spain (5.9 percent), the United States (4.8 percent), and Turkey (4.5 percent).
The loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Prussia in 1871 after the Franco-Prussian War, led to pressure on the French government to make new land available in Algeria for about 5,000 Alsatian and Lorrainer refugees who were resettled there. During the 1870s, both the amount of European-owned land and the number of settlers were doubled, and tens of thousands of unskilled Muslims, who had been uprooted from their land, wandered into the cities or to colon farming areas in search of work.
In 1958, Charles de Gaulle’s return to power in response to a military coup in Algiers on May was supposed to keep Algeria’s status quo as departments of France as hinted by his famous, yet ambiguous, speeches delivered in Oran and Mostaganem on June 6, 1958. De Gaulle’s republican constitution project was approved through the September 1958 referendum and the Fifth Republic was established the following month with De Gaulle as its President.
The latter consented independence in 1962 after a referendum on Algerian self-determination in January 1961 and despite a subsequent aborted military coup in Algiers led by four French generals in April 1961.
On February 23, 2005 the French law on colonialism was an act passed by the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) conservative majority, which imposed on high-school (lycée) teachers to teach the “positive values” of colonialism to their students, in particular in North Africa (article 4). The law created a public uproar and opposition from the whole of the left-wing, and was finally repealed by president Jacques Chirac (UMP) at the beginning of 2006, after accusations of historical revisionism from various teachers and historians.
Algerians feared that the French law on colonialism would hinder the task the French confronting the dark side of their colonial rule in Algeria because article four of the law decreed among other things that “School programmes are to recognise in particular the positive role of the French presence overseas, especially in North Africa, …” Benjamin Stora, a leading specialist on French Algerian history of colonialism, said “France has never taken on its colonial history. It is a big difference with the Anglo-Saxon countries, where post-colonial studies are now in all the universities. We are phenomenally behind the times.” In his opinion, although the historical facts were known to academics, they were not well known by the French public and this led to a lack of honesty in France over French colonial treatment of the Algerian people.
Algérie française was a slogan used about 1960 by those French people who wanted to keep Algeria ruled by France. Literally “French Algeria,” it means that the three départements of Algeria were to be considered integral parts of France.
In Paris, during the perennial traffic jams, adherence to the slogan was indicated by sounding one’s automobile horn in the form of four telegraphic dots followed by a dash, as “al-gér-ie-fran-çaise.” Whole choruses of such horn soundings were heard. This was intended to be reminiscent of the Second World War slogan, “V for Victory,” which had been three dots followed by a dash. The intention was that the opponents of Algérie française were to be considered as traitorous as the collaborators with Germany during the Occupation of France.