Reinvent Democracy by Creating Three Dimensional 3D Democracy

1993–2000 Bill Clinton Administration

Executive Branch
• Webster Hubbell (D) Associate Attorney General, pleaded guilty to mail fraud and tax evasion while in private practice. Sentenced to 21 months in prison (1995)
• Henry Cisneros (D) Secretary of Housing. Resigned and plead guilty (1999) to a misdemeanor charge of lying to the FBI about the amount of money he paid his former mistress, Linda Medlar while he was Mayor of San Antonio, Texas. He was fined $10,000 (1999)
• Ronald Blackley, (D) Secretary of Agriculture Mike Espy’s Chief of Staff, sentenced to 27 months for perjury. Mike Espy was found innocent on all counts.

• Bill Clinton President(D) Impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice for allegedly lying under oath about sexual relations with intern Monica Lewinsky. Clinton was acquitted by the Senate and remained in office. Clinton subsequently was cited for contempt of court and agreed to a five-year suspension of his Arkansas law license. (1998). On October 1, 2001, Bill Clinton was barred from practicing law before the Supreme Court of the United States (2001)
• Pardongate President Bill Clinton (D) granted 140 pardons on his last day in office January 20, 2001 for a total of 396. which seemed large compared to the total of 74 by George H. W. Bush, but not when compared to Ronald Reagans total of 393.
• Whitewater scandal (1994–2000) independent counsel Kenneth Starr (R) investigated the Clintons’ role in peddling influence for the Whitewater (real estate) Development Corporation while he was Governor of Arkansas. No criminal charges were brought against either President Bill Clinton (D) or First Lady Hillary Clinton (D)
• Wampumgate Bruce Babbitt (D), Secretary of the Interior 1993–2001, accused of lying to Congress about influencing a 1995 American Indian tribe casino decision. Babbitt was cleared of all wrongdoing.
• Filegate alleged misuse of FBI resources by Clinton Security Chief, Craig Livingstone (D), to compile an ‘enemies’ list (1996); Investigation found insufficient evidence of criminal wrongdoing
• Vincent Foster (D) the White House lawyer was alleged to have been murdered by either Bill or Hillary Clinton, for various reasons and with varying degrees of involvement. The suicide was investigated by the Park Police Service, the FBI, Independent Consultant Robert Fiske and finally by Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr all of whom ruled that it was a simple suicide (1993)
• Travelgate, involving the firing of White House travel agents. In 1998 Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr (R) exonerated President Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton of any involvement (1993)

Legislative Branch
• Barbara-Rose Collins (D-MI) found to have committed 11 violations of law and house rules stemming from use of campaign funds for personal use.
• Wes Cooley (R-OR), Cooley was convicted of having lied on the 1994 voter information pamphlet about his service in the Army. He was fined and sentenced to two years probation (1997)
• Austin Murphy (D-PA) convicted of engaging in voter fraud for filling out absentee ballots for members of a nursing home.
• Newt Gingrich (R-GA), the Speaker of the House, was accused of financial improprieties leading to House reprimand and $300,000 in sanctions leading to his resignation (1997)
• Walter R. Tucker III (D-CA) resigned from the House before conviction on charges of extortion and income tax fraud while he was Mayor of Compton, California. Sentenced to 27 months in prison.(1996)
• Nicholas Mavroules (D-MA) pleaded guilty to bribery charges.
• House banking scandal The House of Representatives Bank found that 450 members had overdrawn their checking accounts, but had not been penalized. Six were convicted of charges, most only tangentially related to the House Bank itself. Twenty two more of the most prolific over-drafters were singled out by the House Ethics Committee. (1992)
1. Buzz Lukens (R-OH) convicted of bribery and conspiracy.
2. Carl C. Perkins (D-KY) pled guilty to a check kiting scheme involving several financial institutions (including the House Bank).
3. Carroll Hubbard (D-KY)convicted of illegally funneling money to his wife’s 1992 campaign to succeed him in congress.
4. Mary Rose Oakar (D-OH) was charged with seven felonies, but pleaded guilty only to a misdemeanor campaign finance charge not related to the House Bank.
5. Walter Fauntroy (D-DC) convicted convicted of filing false disclosure forms in order to hide unauthorized income.
6. Jack Russ Sgt. at Arms, convicted of three counts.
• Congressional Post Office scandal (1991–1995) A conspiracy to embezzle House Post Office money through stamps and postal vouchers to congressmen.
1. Dan Rostenkowski (D-IL) Rostenkowski was convicted and sentenced to 18 months in prison, in 1995.
2. Joe Kolter (D-PA) Convicted of one count of conspiracy and sentenced to 6 months in prison.
3. Robert V. Rota Postmaster, convicted of one count of conspiracy and two counts of embezzlement.
• Jay Kim (R-CA) accepted $250,000 in illegal 1992 campaign contributions and was sentenced to two months house arrest (1992)
1989–1993 George H. W. Bush Administration
Executive Branch
• Catalina Vasquez Villalpando, (R) Treasurer of the United States. Pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice and tax evasion. The only US Treasurer ever sent to prison. (1992)
• Iran-Contra Affair pardons. On December 24, 1992, George H. W. Bush (R) granted clemency to five convicted government officials and Caspar Weinberger, whose trial had not yet begun. This action prevented any further investigation into the affair.
1. Caspar Weinberger (R) Secretary of Defense under Ronald Reagan
2. Robert C. McFarlane (R) National Security Advisor to Ronald Reagan
3. Elliott Abrams Asssistant Secretary of State to Ronald Reagan
4. Clair George CIA Chief of Covert Ops
5. Alan D. Fiers Chief of the CIA’s Central American Task Force
6. Duane R. Clarridge (R)
Legislative Branch
• Albert Bustamante (D-TX) convicted of accepting bribes.
• Lawrence J. Smith (D-FL) pleaded guilty to tax fraud and lying to federal election officials and served three months in jail, fined $5,000, 2 years probation and back taxes of $40,000
• David Durenberger Senator (R-MN) denounced by Senate for unethical financial transactions and then disbarred (1990). He pled guilty to misuse of public funds and given one year probation (1995)
Judicial Branch
• Clarence Thomas (R) Supreme Court nominee accused of sexual harassment by former employee Anita Hill. He was approved anyway.
• Walter Nixon US Judge (D-MS) Was impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate for perjury on November 3, 1989.
1981–1989 Ronald Reagan Administration
Executive Branch
• Raymond J. Donovan (R) Secretary of Labor under Ronald Reagan, was investigated and acquitted of larceny and fraud concerning subway construction in New York City(1987)
• Housing and Urban Development Scandal A scandal concerning bribery by selected contractors for low income housing projects.
1. Samuel Pierce (R) Secretary of Housing and Urban Development because he made “full and public written acceptance of responsibility” was not charged.
2. James G. Watt (R) Secretary of Interior, 1981–1983, charged with 25 counts of perjury and obstruction of justice, sentenced to five years probation, fined $5,000 and 500 hours of community service
3. Deborah Gore Dean, (R) Executive Assistant to (Samuel Pierce, Secretary of HUD 1981–1987, and not charged). Dean was onvicted of 12 counts of perjury, conspiracy, bribery. Sentenced to 21 months in prison (1987)
4. Phillip D. Winn (R) Assistant Secretary of HUD, 1981–1982, pled guilty to bribery in 1994.
5. Thomas Demery, (R) Assistant Secretary of HUD, pled guilty to bribery and obstruction
6. Joseph A. Strauss, (R) Special Assistant to the Secretary of HUD, convicted for accepting payments to favor Puerto Rican land developers in receiving HUD funding.
7. Silvio D. DeBartolomeis convicted of perjury and bribery.
• Wedtech scandal Wedtech Corporation convicted of bribery for Defense Department contracts
1. Edwin Meese (R) Attorney General, resigned but never convicted
2. Lyn Nofziger (R) White House Press Secretary, conviction of lobbying was overturned.
3. Mario Biaggi (D-NY) sentenced to 2½ years.
4. Robert García (D-NY) sentenced to 2½ years.
• Savings and loan scandal in which 747 institutions failed and had to be rescued with $160,000,000,000 of taxpayer monies in connection with the Keating Five. see Legislative scandals.
• Iran-Contra Affair (1985–1986); A plan conceived by CIA head William Casey (R) and Oliver North (R) of the National Security Counsel to sell TOW missiles to Iran for the return of US hostages and then use part of the money received to fund Contra rebels trying to overthrow the left wing government of Nicaragua, which was in direct violation of Congress’ Boland Amendment. Ronald Reagan appeared on TV stating there was no “arms for hostages” deal, but was later forced to admit, also on TV, that yes, there indeed had been:
1. Caspar Weinberger (R) Secretary of Defense, was indicted on two counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice on June 16, 1992. Weinberger received a pardon from George H. W. Bush on December 24, 1992 before he was tried.
2. William Casey (R) Head of the CIA. Thought to have conceived the plan, was stricken ill hours before he would testify. Reporter Bob Woodward records that Casey knew of and approved the plan.
3. Robert C. McFarlane (R) National Security Adviser, convicted of withholding evidence, but after aplea bargain was given only 2 years probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush
4. Elliott Abrams (R) Asst Sec of State, convicted of withholding evidence, but after a plea bargain was given only 2 years probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush
5. Alan D. Fiers Chief of the CIA’s Central American Task Force, convicted of withholding evidence and sentenced to one year probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush
6. Clair George Chief of Covert Ops-CIA, convicted on 2 charges of perjury, but pardoned by President George H. W. Bush before sentencing.
7. Oliver North (R) convicted of accepting an illegal gratuity, obstruction of a congressional inquiry, and destruction of documents, but the ruling was overturned since he had been granted immunity.
8. Fawn Hall, Oliver North’s secretary was given immunity from prosecution on charges of conspiracy and destroying documents in exchange for her testimony.
9. John Poindexter National Security Advisor (R) convicted of 5 counts of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjury, defrauding the government, and the alteration and destruction of evidence. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling.
10. Duane Clarridge An ex-CIA senior official, he was indicted in November 1991 on 7 counts of perjury and false statements relating to a November 1985 shipment to Iran. Pardoned before trial by President George H. W. Bush.
11. Richard V. Secord Ex-major general in the Air Force who organized the Iran arms sales and Contra aid. He pleaded guilty in November 1989 to making false statements to Congress. Sentenced to two years of probation.
12. Albert Hakim A businessman, he pleaded guilty in November 1989 to supplementing the salary of North by buying a $13,800 fence for North with money from “the Enterprise”, which was a set of foreign companies Hakim used in Iran-Contra. In addition, Swiss company Lake Resources Inc., used for storing money from arms sales to Iran to give to the Contras, plead guilty to stealing government property. Hakim was given two years of probation and a $5,000 fine, while Lake Resources Inc. was ordered to dissolve.
13. Thomas G. Clines Once an intelligence official who became an arms dealer, he was convicted in September 1990 on four income tax counts, including underreporting of income to the IRS and lying about not having foreign accounts. Sentenced to 16 months of prison and fined $40,000.
14. Carl R. Channell A fund-raiser for conservative causes, he pleaded guilty in April 1987 to defrauding the IRS via a tax-exempt organization to fund the Contras. Sentenced to two years probation.
15. Richard R. Miller Associate to Carl R. Channell, he pleaded guilty in May 1987 to defrauding the IRS via a tax-exempt organization led by Channell. More precisely, he plead guilty to lying to the IRS about the deductibility of donations to the organization. Some of the donations were used to fund the Contras. Sentenced to two years of probation and 120 of community service.
16. Joseph F. Fernandez CIA Station Chief of Costa Rica. Indicted on five counts in 1988. The case was dismissed when Attorney General Dick Thornburgh refused to declassify information needed for his defense in 1990.
• Inslaw Affair (1985–1994+); a protracted legal case that alleged that top-level officials of President Ronald Reagan’s (R) Department of Justice were involved in software piracy of the Promis program from Inslaw Inc. forcing it into bankruptcy. Attorney General Edwin Meese (R) and his successor Attorney General Dick Thornburgh (R) were both found to have blocked the investigation of the matter. They were succeeded by Attorney General William P. Barr (R) who also refused to investigate and no charges were ever filed.
1. D. Lowell Jensen, (R) Deputy Attorney General was held in Contempt of Congress.
2. C. Madison Brewer A high ranking Justice Department official was held in Contempt of Congress.
• Michael Deaver (R) Deputy Chief of Staff to Ronald Reagan 1981–85, pleaded guilty to perjury related to lobbying activities and was sentenced to 3 years probation and fined $100,000
• Sewergate A scandal in which funds from the EPA were selectively used for projects which would aid politicians friendly to the Reagan administration.
1. Anne Gorsuch Burford (R) Head of the EPA. Cut the EPA staff by 22% and refused to turn over documents to Congress citing “Executive Privilege”, whereupon she was found in Contempt and resigned with twenty of her top employees.(1980)
2. Rita Lavelle (R) An EPA Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency? misused ‘superfund’ monies and was convicted of perjury. She served six months in prison, was fined $10,000 and given five yrs probation.
Legislative Branch
• David Durenberger Senator (R-MN), denounced by the Senate for unethical financial transactions (1990) and then disbarred as an attorney. In 1995 he pled guilty to 5 misdemeanor counts of misuse of public funds and was given one years probation.
• Jesse Helms Senator (R-NC), His campaign was found guilty of “voter caging” when 125,000 postcards were sent to mainly black neighborhoods and the results used to challenge their residency and therefore their right to vote. (1990)
• Barney Frank Congressman (D-MA), Lived with convicted felon Steve Gobie who ran a gay prostitution operation from Frank’s apartment without his knowledge. Frank was Admonished by Congress for using his congressional privilege to eliminate 33 parking tickets attributed to Gobie.(1987)
• Donald E. “Buz” Lukens (R-OH), Convicted of two counts of bribery and conspiracy. (1996) See also Sex scandals.
• Anthony Lee Coelho (D-CA) Resigns rather than face inquiries from both the Justice Department and the House Ethics Committee about an allegedly unethical “junk bond” deal, which netted him $6,000. He was never charged with any crime (1989)
• Jim Wright (D-TX) House Speaker, resigned after an ethics investigation led by Newt Gingrich alleged improper receipt of $145,000 in gifts (1989)
• Keating Five (1980–1989) The failure of Lincoln Savings and Loan led to Charles Keating (R) donating to the campaigns of five Senators for help. Keating served 42 months in prison. The five were investigated by the Senate Ethics Committee which found that:
1. Alan Cranston Senator (D-CA) reprimanded.
2. Dennis DeConcini Senator (D-AZ) acted improperly
3. Don Riegle Senator (D-MI) acted improperly
4. John Glenn Senator (D-OH) used poor judgment
5. John McCain Senator (R-AZ) used poor judgment
• Abscam FBI sting involving fake ‘Arabs’ trying to bribe 31 congressmen.(1980) The following six Congressmen were convicted:
1. Harrison A. Williams Senator (D-NJ) Convicted on 9 counts of bribery and conspiracy. Sentenced to 3 years in prison.
2. John Jenrette Representative (D-SC) sentenced to two years in prison for bribery and conspiracy.
3. Richard Kelly (R-FL) Accepted $25K and then claimed he was conducting his own investigation into corruption. Served 13 months.
4. Raymond Lederer (D-PA) “I can give you me” he said after accepting $50K. Sentenced to 3 years.
5. Michael Myers (D-PA) Accepted $50K saying, “…money talks and bullshit walks.” Sentenced to 3 years and was expelled from the House.
6. Frank Thompson (D-NJ) Sentenced to 3 years.
7. John M. Murphy (D-NY) Served 20 months of a 3 year sentence.
8. Also arrested were NJ State Senator Angelo Errichetti (D) and members of the Philadelphia City Council. See Local scandals.
• Mario Biaggi (D-NY), Convicted of obstruction of justice and accepting illegal gratuities he was sentenced to 2½ years in prison and fined $500K for his role in the Wedtech scandal, see above. Just before expulsion from the House, he resigned. The next year he was convicted of another 15 counts of obstruction and bribery. (1988)
• Pat Swindall (R-GA) convicted of 6 counts of perjury. (1989)
• George V. Hansen (R-ID) censured for failing to file out disclosure forms. Spent 15 months in prison.
• James Traficant (D-OH), convicted of ten felony counts including bribery, racketeering and tax evasion and sentenced to 8 years in prison. He was expelled from the House July 24, (2002.)
• Frederick W. Richmond (D-NY),Convicted of tax evasion and possession of marijuana. Served 9 months(1982)
• Dan Flood (D-PA) censured for bribery. After a trial ended in a deadlocked jury, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to a year’s probation.
• Joshua Eilberg (D-PA) pleaded guilty to conflict-of-interest charges. In addition, he convinced president Carter to fire the U.S. Attorney investigating his case.
Judicial Branch
• Alcee Hastings (D-FL), Federal District court judge impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate of soliciting a bribe (1989). Subsequently elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1992)
• Harry Claiborne (D-NE), Federal District court Judge impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate on two counts of tax evasion. He served over one year in prison.

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