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Posts tagged ‘Greece’

Turks in Anatolia Is Support to Khazar Modern Jews & Israel

the first wave of Turkish invasions in Asia Minor (1050-1204)

the first wave of Turkish invasions in Asia Minor (1050-1204)

The Turkic migration is the expansion of the Turkic tribes in Europe and Middle East between 6th and 11th centuries. The region of origin of the Turks is Central Asia, Xinjiang, Mongolia and Siberia.

The Khazars were a national group of general Turkic type, independent and sovereign in Eastern Europe between the seventh and tenth centuries C.E. During part of this time it was alleged that the leading Khazars professed Judaism. The name is frequently pronounced with an a-vowel, as in the Greek Χάξαροι and Arabic Khazar (Ḥazar), but there are traces of a different pronunciation in Hebrew (Kuzari, pl. Kuzarim), Greek (Χότξιροι), and Chinese (Kʿo-sa). During the first half of the eighth century, the Khazar’s converted to Judaism. The Khazar kingdom essentially became a new Jewish kingdom. Some scholars trace the origins of Ashkenazi Jews to the conversion of the Khazars. The influence of the Khazar conversions are significant enough to be a major topic of research for scholars today.

It was first suggested in the late 1800’s that Ashkenazi European Jews may have a link to the Turkic Khazars, as it was believed that nomadic Khazar leaders had converted to Judaism in the 8th or 9th century CE. This thesis that Jews were descended from Khazars was widely publicized in Tel Aviv University Professor Shlomo Sand’s 2008 book “The Invention of the Jewish People”.

Certainly identified Turkic tribes were known by the 6th century and by the 10th century most of Central Asia was settled by Turkic tribes. The Seljuq dynasty invaded Anatolia starting in the 11th century, ultimately resulting in permanent Turkic settlement there. Meanwhile, other Turkic tribes either ultimately formed independent nations, such as Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan or formed enclaves within other nations, such as Chuvashia. Turkic peoples also survived in their original range, such as the Uyghurs in China and the Sakha Republic of Siberia, as well as in other scattered places of the Far East and Central Asia.

At midnight August 2, 1492, when Columbus embarked on what would become his most famous expedition to the New World, his fleet departed from the relatively unknown seaport of Palos because the shipping lanes of Cadiz and Seville were clogged with Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain by the Edict of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain.

The Jews forced either to convert to Christianity or to “leave” the country under menace “they dare not return… not so much as to take a step on them not trespass upon them in any manner whatsoever” left their land, their property, their belongings all that was theirs and familiar to them rather than abandon their beliefs, their traditions, their heritage. In the faraway Ottoman Empire, one ruler – Sultan Bayazid II- extended an immediate welcome to the persecuted Jews of Spain, the Sephardim.

Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest. When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1324 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule. The Jews welcomed the Ottomans as saviors. Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until 50 years ago.

Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there.1 Similarly, Jews expelled from Hungary in 1376, from France by Charles VI in September 1394, and from Sicily early in the 15th century found refuge in the Ottoman Empire. In the 1420s, Jews from Salonika then under Venetian control fled to Edirne. In 1470, Jews expelled from Bavaria by Ludvig X found refuge in the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman rule was much kinder than Byzantine rule had been. In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration. Western European Jews received three invitations to settle in the Ottoman Empire. Two were from Muslim sultans, Muhammad (Mehmet) II in the middle of the 15th century and Bayazid II in 1492. The third came in a letter sent by Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati (from Edirne) in 1454 to Jewish communities in Europe in the first part of the century that “invited his coreligionists to leave the torments they were enduring in Christiandom and to seek safety and prosperity in Turkey.” Rabbi Sarfati wrote that “here every man dwells at peace under his own vine and fig tree.”

When Mehmet II “the Conqueror” took Constantinople in 1453, he encountered an oppressed Romaniot (Byzantine) Jewish community which welcomed him with enthusiasm. Sultan Mehmet II issued a proclamation to all Jews “… to ascend the site of the Imperial Throne, to dwell in the best of the land, each beneath his Dine and his fig tree, with silver and with gold, with wealth and with cattle…”.

Turkey A Haven for Sephardic Jews

Sultan Bayazid II’s offer of refuge gave new hope to the persecuted Sephardim. In 1492, the Sultan ordered the governors of the provinces of the Ottoman Empire “not to refuse the Jews entry or cause them difficulties, but to receive them cordially.” According to Bernard Lewis, “the Jews were not just permitted to settle in the Ottoman lands, but were encouraged, assisted and sometimes even compelled”.

Immanual Aboab attributes to Bayazid II the famous remark that “the Catholic monarch Ferdinand was wrongly considered as wise, since he impoverished Spain by the expulsion of the Jews, and enriched Turkey.” The arrival of the Sephardim altered the structure of the community and the original group of Romaniote Jews was totally absorbed.

These Jews settled in various Ottoman cities, such as Salonika, but it was not until the late sixteenth century that they moved to Smyrna, which has become a major port city. The arrival of the Sephardim altered the structure of the community and the original group of Romaniote Jews (descendants of Greek-speaking Jews) was totally absorbed.

Over the centuries an increasing number of European Jews, escaping persecution in their native countries, settled in the Ottoman Empire. In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire.8 In March of 1556, Sultan Suleyman “the Magnificent” wrote a letter to Pope Paul IV asking for the immediate release of the Ancona Marranos, which he declared to be Ottoman citizens. The Pope had no other alternative than to release them, the Ottoman Empire being the “Super Power” of those days.

The Life of Ottoman Jewry

For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivaled that of the Golden Age of Spain. Four Turkish cities: Istanbul, Izmir, Safed and Salonica became the centers of Sephardic Jewry. The Tu B’Shevat seder was developed in Izmir in the seventeenth century. The creator may have been Shabetai Zvi, the pseudo Messiah and founder of the Sabbatean movement. In reaction to Zvi, Izmir’s Jews withdrew from any secular pursuits.

Jews DoctorPrayerLeft: Jewish Doctor – 1568 (Woodcut from “Nicolay de Nicolay”, page 185); Right: Prayer offered for the Victory of Turkish armies in the war against Russia with the presence of the Sadrazam (Prime Minister) Ibrahim Edhem Pasha Ahrida Synagogue (London Illustrated News 9.6.1877) Most of the court physicians were Jews: Hakim Yakoub, Joseph and Moshe Hamon, Daniel Fonseca, Gabriel Buenauentura to name only very few ones. One of the most significant innovations that Jews brought to the Ottoman Empire was the printing press. In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Samuel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul.

Ottoman diplomacy was often carried out by Jews. Joseph Nasi, appointed the Duke of Naxos, was the former Portuguese Marrano Joao Miques. Another Portuguese Marrano, Aluaro Mandes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan. Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire. Jewish women such as Dona Gracia Mendes Nasi “La Seniora” and Esther Kyra exercised considerable influence in the Court.

In the free air of the Ottoman Empire, Jewish literature flourished. Joseph Caro compiled the Shulkhan Arukh. Shlomo haLevi Alkabes composed the Lekhah Dodi a hymn which welcomes the Sabbath according to both Sephardic and Ashkenazi ritual. Jacob Culi began to write the famous MeAm Loez. Rabbi Abraham ben Isaac Assa became known as the father of Judeo-Spanish literature.

On October 27, 1840 Sultan Abdulmecid issued his famous ferman concerning the “Blood Libel Accusation” saying: “… and for the love we bear to our subjects, we cannot permit the Jewish nation, whose innocence for the crime alleged against them is evident, to be worried and tormented as a consequence of accusations which have not the least foundation in truth…”.

Under Ottoman tradition, each non-Moslem religious community was responsible for its own institutions, including schools. In the early 19th century, Abraham de Camondo established a modern school, “La Escola”, causing a serious conflict between conservative and secular rabbis which was only settled by the intervention of Sultan Abdulaziz in 1864. The same year the Takkanot haKehilla (By-laws of the Jewish Community) was published, defining the structure of the Jewish community.

Equality & A New Republic

Efforts at reform of the Ottoman Empire led to the proclamation of the Hatti Humayun in 1856, which made all Ottoman citizens, Moslem and non-Moslem alike, equal under the law. As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces. World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire. In its place rose the young Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was elected president, the Caliphate was abolished and a secular constitution was adopted.

Recognized in 1923 by the Treaty of Lausanne as a fully independent state within its present-day borders, Turkey accorded minority rights to the three principal non-Moslem religious minorities and permitted them to carry on with their own schools, social institutions and funds. In 1926, on the eve of Turkey’s adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights.

During the tragic days of World War II, Turkey managed to maintain its neutrality. As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey. Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system.

During World War II, Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism. While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure. Several Turkish diplomats, Ambassadors Behic Erkin and Numan Menemencioglu; Consul Generals Fikret Sefik Ozdoganci, Bedii Arbel, Selahattin Ulkumen; Consuls Namik Kemal Yolga and Necdet Kent, just to name a few, spent all their efforts to save from the Holocaust the Turkish Jews in those countries, and succeeded.9 Mr. Salahattin Ulkumen, Consul General at Rhodes in 1943-1944, has been recognized by the Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile (“Hassid Umot ha’Olam”) in June 1990. Turkey continues to be a shelter, a haven for all those who have to flee dogmatism, intolerance and persecution.

The Turkification of Anatolia

Anatolia

Anatolia

Anatolia (called Turkey since only 1923) has been inhabited since the paleolithic age, including various ancient Anatolian civilizations, Aeolian, Dorian and Ionian Greeks, Thracians, Armenians and Persians. After Alexander the Great’s conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire.

The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, starting the process of Turkification, which was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.

The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, upon which it disintegrated into several small Turkish beyliks.
Starting from the late 13th century, the Ottomans united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa, becoming a major power in Eurasia and Africa during the early modern period. The empire reached the peak of its power between the 15th and 17th centuries, especially during the 1520–66 reign of Suleiman the Magnificent.

After the second Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683 and the end of the Great Turkish War in 1699, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline. The Tanzimat reforms of the 19th century, which aimed to modernize the Ottoman state, proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire.

The Ottoman Empire entered World War I (1914–18) on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. During the war, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek citizens. Following the war, the huge conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states.

Mustafa Kemal Ali Rıza (Atatürk)

Mustafa Kemal Ali Rıza (Atatürk)

The” Turkish” War of Independence (1919–22), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Ali Rıza (Atatürk) and his colleagues in Anatolia, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president. Since that time te rule of Turks over all other indigenous Anatolians peoples became enforced by the new state of the Turks, who became considered and treated as minorities.

Only during the past century Turkey has been “Turkified” by state power. This was done by the removal of the non-Muslim elements, first, and then by the assimilation of the non-Turkish Muslims into “Turkishness”.

The European Union Is an Evil Plan

European Union Treaty of Nice

European Union Treaty of Nice

1986 was a turning point in the history of Europe in which the  Single  European  Act  was  signed  by  EU  governments. The Act was meant for providing  for  the creation of a single market in which people, goods, capital and services can move freely around the EC. But are they the real objectives of transforming the EC to EU?

The Treaty of Nice was signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001 and came into force on 1 February 2003. It amended the Maastricht Treaty (or the Treaty on European Union) and the Treaty of Rome (or the Treaty establishing the European Community).

It was widely accepted that the Treaty of Nice has failed to deal with the basic question of wide-ranging institutional reform, the European Union institutions being widely viewed as overly complicated, and hence the establishment of the European Convention, leading to a new IGC (Intergovernmental Conference) in 2004, was agreed at Nice.

Opponents of the Treaty claimed that it was a “technocratic” rather than “democratic” treaty, which would further diminish the sovereignty of national and regional parliaments, and would further concentrate power into a centralised and unaccountable bureaucracy. They also claimed that five applicant countries could have joined the EU without changing the EU’s rules, and that others could have negotiated on an individual basis; something opponents to the treaty argued would have been to the applicants’ advantage. They also claimed that the Treaty of Nice would create a two-tier EU. Opponents pointed out that leading pro-treaty politicians had admitted if referendums had been held in countries other than Ireland, it would probably have been defeated there as well.

The Commission and the European Parliament were disappointed that the Nice IGC did not adopt many of their proposals for reform of the institutional structure or introduction of new Community powers, such as the appointment of a European Public Prosecutor. The European Parliament threatened to pass a resolution against the Treaty; although it has no formal power of veto, the Italian Parliament threatened that it would not ratify without the European Parliament’s support. However, in the end this did not come to pass and the European Parliament approved the Treaty.

Nationalism and national sovereignty have no place in the new EU which is totally different from the original Treaties  of  Rome of the EC. With such plans it is very obvious that big economies in Europe are the only masters and winners in a vast European superstate.

Islamist Western Secret Societies of Turkey

Islamist Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan

Islamist Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan

 

Turkey May Set up Buffer zone at Syrian Border! This is a further step of  aggression against Syria.

Turkey which is now ruled by an Islamist government is a very active member of NATO; desperately aspiring for EU membership; involved in fighting different national minorities; close friend to the USA and to puppet Gulf Arab states; ambitious seeker for greater geopolitical regional role; leader of Pan-Islamism is definitely controlled by secret societies; a tunnel for arming and funding Jihadists in Minor Asia bordering Russia and now the spearhead for western regimes changes in Libya; Syria and Egypt.

This government of Turkey is playing very dangerous games far much bigger than their actual size. They are being assisted by the west to improve their economy and win naive populist support inside Turkey. They have been given the green light to form a pro-western regional block and architect favorable changes in the Middle East.

The enemies of this government in Turkey are the same enemies of the USA and the west who are: Russia, Iran; and nationalist movements.

All that being done under pretenses from the west and from their Turkish partner of protecting “civilians” and bringing “Democracy”; while actually this is an international campaign of state-sponsored terrorism.

Invest in a New Desktop Chassis/Case Design

desktop chassis case new design

desktop chassis case new design

I propose to all entrepreneurs a new design for tower desktop; called “Top-Tower form”, (T.T.). The end product shall have all the performance of a versatile, upgradeable, powerful and affordable desktop together with many features of a compact laptop.

Desktop Workstation New AIO Design Details

Desktop Workstation New AIO Design Details

It is very efficient, practical, economical and attractive. It shall solve many issues at once and will become the best alternative to conventional desktop and laptop in business and personal uses.

Since all desktops are now using slim monitors (LCD or Plasma) then there is a chance to have a design whereby the monitor could be integrated and forms a removable part of tower case.

Not like Apple’s iMac computer models released from 2004, and other All-in-One designs, where all PC components are integrated behind an LCD screen. The new design shall do the opposite; by mounting a changeable slim monitor to one side of full-,mid- or mini-tower with a top handle.

The monitor shall act as a slightly tilting side cover to the case, or the case shall have a trapezoidal x-section. All the components of the front panel may be moved below the monitor which will transform the side panel to become the new front panel. You can make the conventional PSU slimmer and/or just fix it vertically to reduce case depth.

old desktop

In the above drawing the monitor shall be without stand and replace the left-side cover.

new desktop

new desktop

(This a rough illustration not showing the best design)

You can initiate a standard trend whereby new tower cases shall have the monitor as a customizable integral part. A separate fold-able or detachable keyboard with an additional touch pad may be added as optional, or just keep a conventional mouse.

Also, you can add a single-leaf or two-leaf sliding or hinged cover to the monitor; plus a single Y-shaped power cord.

An alternative to this design is to make the monitor fixed on adjustable mounts on the left- side of ordinary case. Both designs can be applied with the second as modification for the present models of tower cases.

Hard disks; expansion cards; and optical drives shall be mounted and ejected just from outside of the new front panel below the monitor without opening the case, with the same mechanism used with optical drives in laptops.

I expect these designs will be very attractive and useful for the majority of computer owners who cannot afford to buy a laptop or prefer using a desktop.

The new designs have the following features:
1- occupy less space;
2-shorter cables;
3- changeable monitor;
4- compact and portable;
5- maintain component flexibility;
6- lesser materials and total weight and
7- less expensive in transport and upgrading.
It can go together with manufacturing conventional Desktop Tower Cases.

Major companies realized that the conventional tower desktop needs new design to solve a number of important difficulties. So they came up with the AIO monitor concept but the concept behind the design was based on integrating the case components into the back of the monitor. By doing so, they sacrificed important elements as of upgradability and AIO became only a immobile laptop. It failed.

Now computer manufacturers reversed the concept of AIO monitor and integrated the monitor onto the desktop tower case to create AIO case; but did not solve the issues of expansion cards, monitor positioning and the access to the motherboard. This failed also.

I did not try to improve the AIO case but my design is independent fresh approach. My design offers a number of important advantages to the monitor, motherboard, hard disks, expansion cards, upgradability, maintenance, keyboard, weight, aesthetics and cost.

I am posting to hear form someone interested in manufacturing this deign under patent license.

 

US Debt in Graphs and Charts

Political Party Responsibility in US Debt 1901-2009

Political Party Responsibility in US Debt 1901-2009

Composition of U.S. Long-Term Treasury Debt 2005-2010

Composition of U.S. Long-Term Treasury Debt 2005-2010

(more…)

Greece and Exiting European Hotel California

Greece Withdrawal from European Hotel California
Greece Withdrawal from European Hotel California

Hotel California the lovely top hit song from the Eagles’ album of the same name that they released as a single in February 1977. The last line sounds to be fitting to the European Union.

The lyrics describe an establishment as a luxury resort where “you can check out anytime you like, but you can never leave.” On the surface, it tells the tale of a weary traveler who becomes trapped in a nightmarish luxury hotel that at first appears inviting and tempting. The song is an allegory about hedonism, self-destruction, and greed of the late 1970s. The abstract nature of the lyrics has led listeners to their own interpretations over the years.

Enjoy the lyrics first; then proceed to the grim question of could a Member State Leave the European Union and/or Euro-zone ?

Hotel California

On a dark desert highway, cool wind in my hair
Warm smell of colitas, rising up through the air
Up ahead in the distance, I saw a shimmering light
My head grew heavy and my sight grew dim
I had to stop for the night
There she stood in the doorway;
I heard the mission bell
And I was thinking to myself,
This could be heaven or this could be hell
Then she lit up a candle and she showed me the way
There were voices down the corridor,
I thought I heard them say…

Welcome to the hotel California
Such a lovely place
Such a lovely face
Plenty of room at the hotel California
Any time of year, you can find it here

Her mind is tiffany-twisted, she got the Mercedes bends
She got a lot of pretty, pretty boys, that she calls friends
How they dance in the courtyard, sweet summer sweat.
Some dance to remember, some dance to forget

So I called up the captain,
Please bring me my wine
He said, we haven’t had that spirit here since nineteen sixty-nine
And still those voices are calling from far away,
Wake you up in the middle of the night
Just to hear them say…

Welcome to the hotel California
Such a lovely place
Such a lovely face
They living it up at the hotel California
What a nice surprise, bring your alibis

Mirrors on the ceiling,
The pink champagne on ice
And she said we are all just prisoners here, of our own device
And in the master’s chambers,
They gathered for the feast
The stab it with their steely knives,
But they just can’t kill the beast

Last thing I remember, I was
Running for the door
I had to find the passage back
To the place I was before
Relax, said the night man,
We are programmed to receive.
You can check out any time you like,
But you can never leave!

Rights of withdrawal from the European Union; Does a right of withdrawal exist?

The treaties were concluded “for an unlimited period”
● Article 53, TEU
● Article 356, TFEU
Accordingly, there is no right to withdraw from the EU unless such a right can be inferred or implied from treaty itself (Article 56, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. However, Article 50 TEU (inserted by Lisbon) now allows a Member State to withdraw from the EU in accordance with its own constitutional requirements.

Provisions dealing with negotiation of withdrawal do not specifically deal with a Member State also departing from Eurozone. So there is a mechanism for withdrawal which comprises both EU and Eurozone membership under Article 50. This is followed by immediate re-application solely for EU membership under Article 49.

Rights of Withdrawal from the Eurozone

The Treaties do not create an express right of withdrawal from Eurozone. No right of withdrawal can be implied since inconsistent with Article 140(3), TFEU (which refers to the irrevocable fixing of the euro substitution rate for the acceding currency)

There is therefore no procedure available under which Member State can leave Eurozone but remain within EU. In strictly legal terms, such an outcome could only be achieved by a revision of the Treaties.

Both Member State in difficulties and all other Member States may agree that Eurozone departure would be in best interests of all. What legal avenues are open to them? Amendment/ratification of Treaties would be very time- consuming and would not answer a pressing urgency.

Suspension of treaty is allowed for a period, but merely gives time and does not affect overall legal position among the parties (Articles 60 and 72, Vienna Convention). There is therefore no treaty or legally-based mechanism allowing for a Eurozone (as opposed to an EU) exit on an urgent basis.

There is no easy way out of the Eurozone – voluntarily or compulsorily. This is to be expected given the inter-connected nature of the currency and of the European financial markets.

A Eurozone departure is not necessarily a remedy for the fiscal ills of the departing Member State and (unless a “position of strength” departure) is likely to increase its debt servicing costs, given that many external creditors will remain entitled to claim payment in Euro. Local creditors in the departing Member State itself and holders of domestic law obligations are the most likely to be disadvantaged by the withdrawal.